Linda McDaniel is a Certified Nurse Midwife practicing in West Georgia and Course Faculty at Frontier Nursing University. She earned her DNP and MSN degrees from Frontier Nursing University. She is a volunteer for Shared Hope International. She is currently conducting research on this topic and the impact it has on her community
Human and sex trafficking has been a problem most individuals believe is only associated with events occurring outside United States. Unfortunately, this is a common misconception and this problem is prevalent and uprising in the United States. The exact number of cases in the United States is unknown but there are reported cases in every state. The youth of America are at an exponential risk of being exploited and becoming victims of human sex trafficking. Although youth and vulnerable population are typical targets for sex trafficking, anyone is at risk of being a target. A victim of sex trafficking is defined by US Federal Law as an individual under the age of 18 who performs commercial sex through force, fraud or coercion, or is induced into commercial sex. Sex traffickers utilize different methods of manipulation to entrap and coerce their victims to perform sex acts they are unwilling to perform. This leads to some form of child or adult prostitution. Labor traffickers may embellish potential employment, education, or travel opportunities to recruit individuals to work in subservient roles resulting in hostile work conditions and inability to regain their freedom for various reasons. These acts translate into a form of modern day slavery. These victims are at risk for physical and psychological trauma that may be longstanding. With the increasing rise of these victims in our communities, most healthcare providers have not received the proper training to identify potential victims and resources to report and assist these individuals.
AN Rosman has completed her graduation as a Midwife in 1987. Till 2000, she practiced midwifery in a private primary practice in Zwolle (The Netherlands). Thereafter, she started working as a Midwife in secondary and tertiary care and started her PhD in 2009 on External Cephalic Version which she succesfully completed in 2014. Presently, she is working at the University of Rotterdam (Erasmus MC) as Senior Researcher and Project Manager of pre and interconception care, work related risks and pregnancy.
Guidelines recommend that external cephalic version (ECV) should be offered to all eligible women with a fetus in breech presentation at term. However, only 70% of those women are offered an ECV attempt and only 50-60% of them recieve an ECV attempt. We explored the determinants (barriers and facilitators) affecting the uptake of the guidelines among gynecologists and midwives in the Netherlands. We held a national online survey among gynecologists and midwives in the Netherlands. In the online survey we identified the determinants that positively or negatively influenced the professionals adherence to three key recommendations in the guidelines: counselling; advising for ECV; arranging an ECV. Determinants were identified in a previously performed qualitative study and were categorised into five underlying constructs: attitude towards ECV; professional obligation; outcome expectations; self-efficacy; preconditions for successful ECV. We perfomed a multivariate analysis to assess the importance of the different constructs for adherence to the guideline. 364 professionals responded to the survey. Adherence varied: 84% counselled, 73% advised and 82% arranged an ECV for (almost) all their clients. Although 90% of the respondents considered ECV to be an effective treatment for preventing caesarean childbirths and only 30% agreed that every client should undergo ECV. Self-efficacy (perceived skills) was the most important determinant influencing adherence. Self-efficacy appears to be the most significant determinant for counselling, advising and arranging ECV. To improve adherence to the guidelines on ECV we must improve self-efficacy.